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Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (ClPAHs) have been recognized as novel hazardous pollutants; however, the dominant sources remain unclear. This study investigates the occurrences of ClPAHs in five stages of size-segregated particles collected from an urban site and evaluates the sources and factors affecting the concentrations using organic and inorganic source tracers. ClPAHs are the most frequently detected in the finest particle fraction (less than 1.1 µm; PM1.1), similar to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and levoglucosan (LEV). The concentrations of total ClPAHs in PM1.1 shows a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with those of total PAHs and specific hopanes but not to LEV and biogenic fatty acids; this suggests that ClPAHs dominantly originate from industrial activities and vehicular emissions. Heatmap analysis, including source tracers, is used to categorize the possible sources of ClPAHs into three types: ClPAH-specific sources, local industrial activities and vehicular emissions, and remote industrial activities. Furthermore, correlation network analysis is used to clarify the relationships between the pollutants. Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Yuki Imai, Fumikazu Ikemori, Yuri Yoshino, Takeshi Ohura. Approaches to the source evaluation of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fine particles. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2023 Jan 01;249:114394

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PMID: 36508790

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