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    Perform a systematic review to evaluate the influence of smoking on the effectiveness of tooth whitening (TW) and to analyze whether tooth sensitivity is different between smokers and non-smokers. A systematic review modeled according to the PRISMA guidelines was conducted. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, Scopus, and OpenGrey databases were searched for related clinical trials. The population, exposure, comparison, outcomes (PECO) was individuals who had TW performed, smoking individuals, non-smoking individuals, and effectiveness of TW, respectively. Risk of bias was assessed with the ROBINS-I tool, and data from included studies were extracted by two researchers independently. The certainty of the evidence was evaluated using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations) approach. Five studies were selected for qualitative analysis. The ROBINS-I tool classified 3 studies as having a moderate risk of bias, one study as having a serious risk of bias, and one with a critical risk. GRADE performed only for color change results and showed a low certainty of evidence. Limited evidence suggests that effectiveness of TW between smokers and non-smokers is similar. The tooth sensitivity also does not seem to be influenced by smoking. Due to the heterogeneity of the data, a meta-analysis could not be performed. Effectiveness of TW between smokers and non-smokers is comparable. The tooth sensitivity also does not seem to be influenced by smoking. The effectiveness of bleaching among smokers and non-smokers appears to be similar. Tooth sensitivity during TW also appears not to be influenced by smoking. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


    Elma Vieira Takeuchi, Cíntia de Melo Silva Souza, Thaís Andrade de Figueiredo Barros, Aryvelto Miranda Silva, Cristiane de Melo Alencar, Cecy Martins Silva. Influence of smoking on the effectiveness of tooth whitening: a systematic review. Clinical oral investigations. 2023 Jan;27(1):69-78

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    PMID: 36512116

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