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    Avian trichomonosis is a worldwide and cross-species epidemic, and the infection in pigeons is particularly severe. Although the disease causes a serious threat to poultry health resulting in significant economic losses, the relationship between Trichomonas gallinae (T. gallinae) and host innate immunity is still not clear. Extracellular traps (ETs) are an innate immunity response to parasitic infections. However, whether host cells can produce ETs after T. gallinae infection has not yet been reported. In the present study, the ability of T. gallinae to induce the production of heterophil extracellular traps (HETs) in pigeons was examined. T. gallinae-induced HETs were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the main components of HETs were detected by fluorescence confocal microscopy. Changes in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were tested during the HETosis. A quantitative analysis of T. gallinae-induced HETs, the role of myeloperoxidase (MPO), store-operated Ca (2+) entry (SOCE), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase in T. gallinae-induced HET formation were conducted by inhibitor assays. The results showed that T. gallinae induced ET formation in pigeon heterophils. ETs consisted of a DNA skeleton, neutrophil elastase (NE), MPO, and Histone3 (H3). T. gallinae-induced HETs formation in a dose- and time-dependent process. The release of T. gallinae-induced HETs depends on MPO, SOCE, and NADPH oxidase. Furthermore, after T. gallinae stimulated pigeon heterophils, ROS production was significantly increased, while no significant differences in the LDH activity were observed. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


    Hongyu Wang, Yuru Wang, Xuehan Wang, Ran Wei, Xiaocen Wang, Pengtao Gong, Nan Zhang, Xichen Zhang, Xin Li, Jianhua Li. Trichomonas gallinae induces heterophil extracellular trap formation in pigeons. Parasitology research. 2023 Feb;122(2):527-536

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    PMID: 36522547

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