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    Fly ash (FA) is a solid, fine powder that constitutes a by-product obtained when coal, biomass, municipal solid waste or a mixture of these are combusted. This review article focuses on the mechanochemistry of coal fly ash (CFA), as well as highlights the issue of fly ash from municipal solid waste (MSW). In general, FA is regarded as a waste of public concern (since it contains hazardous components), which is primarily consumed in the construction industry, as well as in chemical synthesis and environmental engineering. However, the actual amount of FA recycled is still less than the amount produced, with the reuse rate of only up to 30 %. Due to its relatively low reactivity and heterogeneity, FA is commonly landfilled in huge quantities. Nevertheless, the physical and chemical properties of FA can be tailored, for example, by mechanical forces, ultimately leading to a higher value-added product. Currently, mechanochemistry (MC) is drawing attention in chemical synthesis, pollution remediation and waste management, especially as a possible solution for various drawbacks of conventional syntheses and processes. Mechanochemical processing of FA can be considered eco-friendly, inexpensive and efficient, in particular for processing tons of readily available fly ash already stored in ponds or landfills. With the aim of highlighting the hidden potential and facilitating the favorable use of FA, this article deals with FA as an environmentally challenging material, FA reactivity and recycling through mechanochemical processing, mechanochemical stabilization of heavy metals in FA, as well as up-to-date challenges for life cycle assessment (LCA) in evaluating FA-derived materials. Furthermore, all these full-potential aspects of FA mechanochemistry have not been addressed before, which is a valuable contribution to the existing literature. Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Ewelina Grabias-Blicharz, Wojciech Franus. A critical review on mechanochemical processing of fly ash and fly ash-derived materials. The Science of the total environment. 2023 Feb 20;860:160529

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    PMID: 36574561

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