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Inflammation is one of the most natural ways of the body's biological response against invading foreign pathogens or injured cells which eventually can lead to a chronic or acute productive response. Fibrosis is an end-stage event associated with an inflammatory response addressed with tissue hardening, discoloration, and most importantly overgrowth of associated tissue. Various organs at different diseased conditions are affected by fibrosis including the liver, pancreas, brain, kidney, and lung. Etiological factors including internal like inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, and oxidative stress and external like alcohol and viruses contribute to the development of fibrosis in both the liver and pancreas. More frequently, these organs are associated with pathogenic progression towards fibrosis from acute and chronic conditions and eventually fail in their functions. The pathogenesis of the organ-fibrotic events mainly depends on the activation of residential stellate cells; these cells help to accumulate collagen in respective organs. Various diagnostic options have been developed recently, and various therapeutic options are in trial to tackle fibrosis. In this review, an overview on fibrosis, the pathogenesis of fibrosis in the liver and pancreas, various diagnostic options developed in recent years, and possible present therapeutic measures to overcome options of fibrosis in the liver and pancreas; thus, restoring the functional status of organs is discussed. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


Tiasha Dasgupta, Venkatraman Manickam. Fibrosis in Liver and Pancreas: a Review on Pathogenic Significance, Diagnostic Options, and Current Management Strategies. Inflammation. 2023 Jun;46(3):824-834

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PMID: 36595108

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