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    This paper discusses the compensation standard for exhaust pollution and devises a compensation mechanism for Macao's tourism-related transport sector based on an integration of chemical exergy and universal exergy, using data on gasoline consumption by automobile sector retrieved from the transportation industry. The results reveal that: (1) the exergy values of air pollutant emissions increased from 1.53 × 1012 kJ in 2010 to 2.03 × 1012 kJ in 2019 (an increase of 1.33 times), and the exergy of CO, NOx, and SO2 emissions accounted for 77.5%, 20.4% and 2.1% of total exhaust emissions in Macao respectively. (2) In 2019, the monetary value of emission exergy, and the environmental costs of air pollution, were 1.7 times greater than in 2010. (3) If Light Rail Transit is compensated for, then the mean interval's values of the upper and lower limits of the compensation standard are 0.55 USD and 0.05 USD, respectively. When gasoline tax is used as a means of compensation it is necessary to raise its rate by about 8% based on the tax rate. A three-stage bargaining game model is used to provide evidence that this compensation standard is practical and acceptable. Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Xiumei Xu, Lue Li, Hong Zang, Yicheng Huang, Chao Feng. A compensation mechanism for air pollutants generated by tourism-related land-based transportation: An exergy-based case study from Macao. Journal of environmental management. 2023 Apr 01;331:117252

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    PMID: 36642052

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