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This study was aimed at demonstrating the impact of a health education intervention on reducing the incidence of influenza-like illnesses symptoms among Malaysian Hajj pilgrims. This study utilizes a quasi-experimental study in the evaluation of the impact of the intervention. Participants were recruited during Hajj orientation courses organized by private Hajj companies. Participants from two companies were assigned to an intervention group and control group, respectively. The intervention group received a smartphone-based health education intervention guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM), while the control group received a regular Hajj guide intervention smartphone application before departure to Hajj. Data on the incidence of influenza-like illnesses (ILI) were collected from participants from two Hajj companies before and after returning from Hajj. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS with descriptive analysis, and analytical tests were conducted at 5% significance level. A total of 102 pilgrims completed the study in both intervention and control groups. The incidence of ILI and Non-ILI symptoms were statistically significant when the intervention and control groups (p = 0.049) were compared. In conclusion, health education has an impact on reducing the incidence of ILI and non-ILI among Hajj pilgrims. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


Mohammed Dauda Goni, Habsah Hasan, Nyi Nyi Naing, Nadiah Wan-Arfah, Zakuan Zainy Deris, Wan Nor Arifin, Aisha Abubakar Baaba. Impact of a Health Education Intervention on the Incidence of Influenza-Like Illnesses (ILI) During Hajj via Smartphone Application. Journal of immigrant and minority health. 2023 Aug;25(4):870-881

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PMID: 36695987

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