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The central role of the gut microbiota in the regulation of health and disease has been convincingly demonstrated. Polymicrobial interkingdom interactions between bacterial (the bacteriome) and fungal (the mycobiome) communities of the gut have become a prominent focus for development of potential therapeutic approaches. In addition to polymicrobial interactions, the complex gut ecosystem also mediates interactions between the host and the microbiota. These interactions are complex and bidirectional; microbiota composition can be influenced by host immune response, disease-specific therapeutics, antimicrobial drugs, and overall ecosystems. However, the gut microbiota also influences host immune response to a drug or therapy by potentially transforming the drug's structure and altering bioavailability, activity, or toxicity. This is especially true in cases where the gut microbiota has produced a biofilm. The negative ramifications of biofilm formation include alteration of gut permeability, enhanced antimicrobial resistance, and alteration of host immune response effectiveness. Natural modulation of the gut microbiota, using probiotic and prebiotic approaches, may also be used to affect the host microbiome, a type of "natural" modulation of the host microbiota composition. In this review, we discuss potential bidirectional interactions between microbes and host, and we describe the changes in gut microbiota induced by probiotic and prebiotic approaches as well as their potential clinical consequences, including biofilm formation. We outline a systematic approach to designing probiotics capable of altering the host microbiota in disease states, using Crohn's disease as a model chronic disease. Understanding how the effective changes in the microbiome may enhance treatment efficacy may unlock the possibility of modulating the gut microbiome to improve treatment using a natural approach. Copyright © 2023 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Rachael Gowen, Ahmed Gamal, Luca Di Martino, Thomas S McCormick, Mahmoud A Ghannoum. Modulating the Microbiome for Crohn's Disease Treatment. Gastroenterology. 2023 Apr;164(5):828-840

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PMID: 36702360

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