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    This chapter describes the usage of homologizer to phase gene copies into polyploid subgenomes. Allopolyploids contain multiple copies of each genetic locus, where each copy potentially belongs to a different subgenome with its own distinct evolutionary history. If gene copies across different loci are incorrectly phased (i.e., assigned to the wrong subgenome), then the bifurcating tree assumption underlying multilocus phylogenetic inference and related analyses will be violated, leading to unsound results. homologizer is a highly flexible Bayesian method that uses a phylogenetic framework to infer the posterior probabilities of the phasing of gene copies into subgenomes. We describe how to prepare input data and other considerations needed to perform homologizer analyses and demonstrate how to visualize and interpret the results. We first walk through a basic example using homologizer to phase gene copies into polyploid subgenomes and then demonstrate how homologizer can be used as a hypothesis-testing tool to detect non-homeologous sequences such as hidden paralogs or allelic variation through the tools of Bayesian model comparison. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


    William A Freyman, Carl J Rothfels. Phasing Gene Copies into Polyploid Subgenomes Using a Bayesian Phylogenetic Approach. Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2023;2545:123-138

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    PMID: 36720810

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