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    Invasive aspergillosis is a major threat to immunocompromised individuals. Galactomannan (GM) is used as a biomarker for invasive aspergillosis. Investigations recommended in current guidelines include GM testing of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. GM testing of endotracheal aspirate, the sampling of which is less invasive, less resource-intensive and less aerosol-generating, is not validated. We compared the performance of endotracheal aspirate GM as a screening tool to predict BAL fluid GM-positivity in patients with suspected invasive aspergillosis. Of each patient, a pair of corresponding endotracheal aspirate and BAL fluid samples was tested and compared for GM results. Two sample sets were included. The first consisted of 140 consecutive BAL fluid/endotracheal aspirate pairs obtained from 133 patients. The pairs of the second sample set (n = 38) were selected based on the criterion that the BAL tested positive for GM. All specimens were obtained in a German 2,000 bed tertiary care center. Among BAL fluid GM-positive samples, endotracheal aspirate GM demonstrated poor specificity (72%) but high sensitivity (92% in predicting BAL fluid GM of ≥ 0.50 and 91% for BAL fluid GM of ≥ 1.00) and an excellent negative predictive value (98%). The use of a marginally elevated cutoff of 0.63 resulted in an improved specificity (72-81%), without loss of sensitivity. For screening purposes, one might consider testing endotracheal aspirate for GM, which could help avoid unnecessary BAL. © 2023. The Author(s).


    Karl Dichtl, Rachel Barry, Matthias W A Angstwurm, Sebastian Suerbaum, Johannes Wagener. Performance of galactomannan testing from endotracheal aspirate to guide bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Infection. 2023 Jun;51(3):769-774

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    PMID: 36738420

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