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Cryptococcosis is a fungal disease of public health relevance that affects numerous animal species and humans, causing respiratory and neurological impairment. Hence, we conducted a systematic review that included publications from 1975 to 2021 and covered 132 articles that addressed reports of cryptococcosis in domestic and wild animals, its main clinical manifestations, pathological findings, etiology, diagnosis, and therapeutic protocols. We found that the highest number of reports of cryptococcosis is in domestic species, especially cats. Among the wild and/or exotic animals, koalas and ferrets are the most affected, being important carriers of Cryptococcus spp. Pulmonary and neurological involvement is predominant in all species, although nonspecific clinical manifestations have been reported in various species, making clinical suspicion and diagnosis difficult. The countries with the most reports are Australia, the United States, Brazil, and Canada, with C. gattii VGI and VGII standing out. The therapies were based on azoles, amphotericin B, and 5-flucytosine, although there is no standard treatment protocol. Although, several diagnostic methods have been described, in a significant number of reports the diagnosis was made after a necropsy. Professionals are warned about diverse and nonspecific clinical manifestations in different animal species, which underlines the importance of cryptococcosis in the differential diagnosis in clinical practice. Furthermore, it is necessary to encourage the use of laboratory and molecular tools to improve the diagnosis of cryptococcosis. We also emphasize the urgent need for standardized therapeutic protocols to guide veterinary clinicians. © The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology.


Carolina Dos Santos Bermann, Caroline Quintana Braga, Lara Baccarin Ianiski, Sônia de Avila Botton, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira. Cryptococcosis in domestic and wild animals: A review. Medical mycology. 2023 Feb 03;61(2)

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PMID: 36746435

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