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Because of endotoxemia during sepsis (a severe life-threatening infection), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) tolerance (the reduced responses to the repeated LPS stimulation) might be one of the causes of sepsis-induced immune exhaustion (the increased susceptibility to secondary infection and/or viral reactivation). In LPS tolerance macrophage (twice-stimulated LPS, LPS/LPS) compared with a single LPS stimulation (N/LPS), there was (i) reduced energy of the cell in both glycolysis and mitochondrial activities (extracellular flux analysis), (ii) decreased abundance of the following proteins (proteomic analysis): (a) complex I and II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, (b) most of the glycolysis enzymes, (c) anti-viral responses with Myxovirus resistance protein 1 (Mx1) and Ubiquitin-like protein ISG15 (Isg15), (d) antigen presentation pathways, and (iii) the down-regulated anti-viral genes, such as Mx1 and Isg15 (polymerase chain reaction). To test the correlation between LPS tolerance and viral reactivation, asymptomatic mice with and without murine norovirus (MNV) infection as determined in feces were tested. In MNV-positive mice, MNV abundance in the cecum, but not in feces, of LPS/LPS mice was higher than that in N/LPS and control groups, while MNV abundance of N/LPS and control were similar. Additionally, the down-regulated Mx1 and Isg15 were also demonstrated in the cecum, liver, and spleen in LPS/LPS-activated mice, regardless of MNV infection, while N/LPS more prominently upregulated these genes in the cecum of MNV-positive mice compared with the MNV-negative group. In conclusion, defects in anti-viral responses after LPS tolerance, perhaps through the reduced energy status of macrophages, might partly be responsible for the viral reactivation. More studies on patients are of interest.


Jiradej Makjaroen, Pornpimol Phuengmaung, Wilasinee Saisorn, Suwasin Udomkarnjananun, Trairak Pisitkun, Asada Leelahavanichkul. Lipopolysaccharide Tolerance Enhances Murine Norovirus Reactivation: An Impact of Macrophages Mainly Evaluated by Proteomic Analysis. International journal of molecular sciences. 2023 Jan 17;24(3)

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PMID: 36768154

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