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Renal cell cancer is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most diagnosed type. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain-containing-3 (TIM-3) belongs to immunological checkpoints that are key regulators of the immune response. One of the known TIM-3 ligands is galectin-9 (LGALS9). A limited number of studies have shown an association between TIM-3 polymorphisms and cancer risk in the Asian population; however, there is no study on the role of LGALS9 polymorphisms in cancer. The present study aimed to analyze the influence of TIM-3 and LGALS9 polymorphisms on susceptibility to ccRCC and patient overall survival (OS), with over ten years of observations. Using TaqMan probes, ARMS-PCR, and RFPL-PCR, we genotyped two TIM-3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): rs1036199 and rs10057302, and four LGALS9 SNPs: rs361497, rs3751093, rs4239242, and rs4794976. We found that the presence of the rs10057302 A allele (AC + AA genotypes) as well as the rs4794976 T allele (GT + TT genotypes) decreased susceptibility to ccRCC by two-fold compared to corresponding homozygotes. A subgroup analysis showed the association of some SNPs with clinical features. Moreover, TIM-3 rs1036199 significantly influenced OS. Our results indicate that variations within TIM-3 and LGALS9 genes are associated with ccRCC risk and OS.


Anna Andrzejczak, Krzysztof Tupikowski, Anna Tomkiewicz, Bartosz Małkiewicz, Kuba Ptaszkowski, Aleksandra Domin, Tomasz Szydełko, Lidia Karabon. The Variations' in Genes Encoding TIM-3 and Its Ligand, Galectin-9, Influence on ccRCC Risk and Prognosis. International journal of molecular sciences. 2023 Jan 20;24(3)

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PMID: 36768365

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