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    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physiological and morphological parameters of pregnant does for early prediction of prenatal litter size. In total, 33 does were screened using ultrasonography and further categorized into three groups based on does bearing twins (n = 12), a single fetus (n = 12), or non-pregnant does (n = 9). The rectal temperature °F (RT) and respiration rate (RR) as physiological parameters, while abdominal girth in cm (AG) and udder circumference in cm (UC) as morphological parameters were recorded at different gestation times, i.e. 118, 125, 132 and 140 days. In addition to this, age (years) and weight at service (kg) were also used. The statistical analyses included analysis of variance (ANOVA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The results indicated that groups had significant (P < 0.05) differences among morphological parameters at each gestation time, with higher AG and UC in does bearing twins followed by a single fetus and non-pregnant does. However, both physiological parameters were non-significantly (P > 0.05) associated with litter size groups. It was also revealed that the studied parameters showed increasing trends over gestation time in single and twin fetus categories, but they were on par among non-pregnant does. The results of the LDA revealed that estimated function based on age, weight at service, RR, RT, AG and UC had greater (ranging from 75.00 to 91.70%) accuracy, sensitivity and specificity at different gestation times. It was concluded that using an estimated function, future pregnant does may be identified in advance for single or twin litter size, with greater accuracy.


    Ankit Magotra, Yogesh C Bangar, Sandeep Kumar, A S Yadav. Evaluation of physiological and morphological parameters for early prediction of prenatal litter size in goats. Zygote (Cambridge, England). 2023 Jun;31(3):219-224

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    PMID: 36815227

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