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    Long-term presence of M1 macrophages causes serious foreign body reaction (FBR), which is the main reason for the failure of biological scaffold integration. Inducing M2 polarization of macrophages near scaffolds to reduce foreign body response has been widely researched. In this work, inspired by the special capability of tumor exosomes in macrophages M2 polarization, we integrate tumor-derived exosomes into biological scaffolds to minimize the FBR. In brief, breast cancer cell-derived exosomes are loaded into polycaprolactone-b-polyethylene glycol-b-polycaprolactone (PCL-PEG-PCL) fiber scaffold through physical adsorption and entrapment to constructed bioactive engineered scaffold. In cellular experiments, we demonstrate bioactive engineered scaffold based on PCL-PEG-PCL and exosomes can promote the transformation of macrophages from M1 to M2 through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. In addition, the exosomes release gradually from scaffolds and act on the macrophages around the scaffolds to reduce FBR in a subcutaneous implant mouse model. Compared with PCL-PEG-PCL scaffolds without exosomes, bioactive engineered scaffolds reduce significantly inflammation and fibrosis of tissues around the scaffolds. Therefore, cancer cell-derived exosomes show the potential for constructing engineered scaffolds in inhibiting the excessive inflammation and facilitating tissue formation. © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


    Zehong Xiang, Xinghua Guan, Zhifang Ma, Qiang Shi, Mikhail Panteleev, Fazly I Ataullakhanov. Bioactive engineered scaffolds based on PCL-PEG-PCL and tumor cell-derived exosomes to minimize the foreign body reaction. Biomaterials and biosystems. 2022 Aug;7:100055

    PMID: 36824486

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