Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

  • bacteria (2)
  • benchmark (1)
  • cell size (1)
  • dna damage (2)
  • genes (3)
  • pcr (1)
  • regulon (8)
  • respond (1)
  • responses so (1)
  • rna (1)
  • shewanella (3)
  • signals (1)
  • Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

    Currently, there is a lack of bacterial biomarkers indicative of exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). IR biomarkers have applications for medical treatment planning, population exposure surveillance, and IR sensitivity studies. In this study, we compared the utility of signals originating from prophages and the SOS regulon as biomarkers of IR exposure in the radiosensitive bacterium Shewanella oneidensis. Using RNA sequencing, we demonstrated that 60 min after exposure to acute doses of IR (40, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 Gy), the transcriptional activation of the SOS regulon and the lytic cycle of the T-even lysogenic prophage So Lambda are comparable. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR), we showed that 300 min after exposure to doses as low as 0.25 Gy, the fold change of transcriptional activation of the So Lambda lytic cycle surpassed that of the SOS regulon. We observed an increase in cell size (a phenotype of SOS activation) and plaque production (a phenotype of prophage maturation) 300 min after doses as low as 1 Gy. While the transcriptional responses of the SOS and So Lambda regulons have been examined in S. oneidensis after lethal IR exposures, the potential of these (and other transcriptome-wide) responses as biomarkers of sublethal levels of IR (<10 Gy) and the longer-term activity of these two regulons have not been investigated. A major finding is that after exposure to sublethal doses of IR, the most upregulated transcripts are associated with a prophage regulon and not with a DNA damage response. Our findings suggest that prophage lytic cycle genes are a promising source of biomarkers of sublethal DNA damage. IMPORTANCE The bacterial minimum threshold of sensitivity to ionizing radiation (IR) is poorly understood, which hinders our understanding of how living systems recover from the doses of IR experienced in medical, industrial, and off-world environments. Using a transcriptome-wide approach, we studied how in the highly radiosensitive bacterium S. oneidensis, genes (including the SOS regulon and the So Lambda prophage) are activated after exposure to low doses of IR. We found that 300 min after exposure to doses as low as 0.25 Gy, genes within the So Lambda regulon remained upregulated. As this is the first transcriptome-wide study of how bacteria respond to acute sublethal doses of IR, these findings serve as a benchmark for future bacterial IR sensitivity studies. This is the first work to highlight the utility of prophages as biomarkers of exposure to very low (i.e., sublethal) doses of IR and to examine the longer-term impacts of sublethal IR exposure on bacteria.


    Philip Sweet, Jacob Blacutt, Vernita Gordon, Lydia Contreras. Exposure of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to Sublethal Doses of Ionizing Radiation Triggers Short-Term SOS Activation and Longer-Term Prophage Activation. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2023 Mar 29;89(3):e0171622

    Expand section icon Mesh Tags

    Expand section icon Substances

    PMID: 36847540

    View Full Text