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    Decline in hemoglobin (Hgb) levels is common post-embolization, but there is no consensus on the classification of patients based on risk for re-bleeding or re-intervention. The current study evaluated post-embolization Hgb level trends with the goal of understanding the factors predictive of re-bleeding and re-intervention. All patients who underwent embolization for gastrointestinal (GI), genitourinary, peripheral, or thoracic arterial hemorrhage from 01/2017 to 01/2022 were reviewed. Data included demographics, periprocedural pRBC transfusion (TF) or pressor requirements, and outcome. Lab data consisted of Hgb values pre-embolization, immediately post-embolization, and daily values on days 1-10 after embolization. Hgb trends were compared between patients across TF and re-bleeding outcomes. Regression model was used to examine factors predictive of re-bleeding and magnitude of Hgb reduction post-embolization. A total of 199 patients were embolized for active arterial hemorrhage. Perioperative Hgb level trends were similar for all sites and between TF + and TF- patients, showing a decline reaching a nadir within 6 days post-embolization followed by an upward trend. Maximum Hgb drift was predicted by GI embolization (p = 0.018), TF before embolization (p = 0.001), and use of vasopressor (p = 0.000). Patients with Hgb drop  > 15% within the first two days post-embolization had a higher chance of having a re-bleeding episode (p = 0.04). Perioperative Hgb trends showed a consistent downward drift followed by an upward shift, irrespective of TF requirement status or site of embolization. Using a cut-off value of 15% Hgb reduction within the first two days post-embolization may be helpful to assess re-bleeding risk. © 2023. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe (CIRSE).


    Pooya Torkian, Hamed Jalaeian, Stephanie Wallace, Prashant Shrestha, Reza Talaie, Jafar Golzarian. Post-Embolization Hemoglobin Changes: When to Consider Re-intervention. Cardiovascular and interventional radiology. 2023 May;46(5):617-625

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    PMID: 36869220

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