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Recombinant adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors have taken center stage as gene delivery vehicles for gene therapy. Asparagine deamidation of AAV capsid proteins has been reported to reduce vector stability and potency of AAV gene therapy products. Deamidation of asparagine residue is a common post-translational modification of proteins that is detected and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based peptide mapping. However, artificial deamidation can be spontaneously induced during sample preparation for peptide mapping prior to LC-MS analysis. We have developed an optimized sample preparation method to reduce and minimize deamidation artifacts induced during sample preparation for peptide mapping, which typically takes several hours to complete. To shorten turnaround time of deamidation results and to avoid artificial deamidation, we developed orthogonal RPLC-MS and RPLC-fluorescence detection methods for direct deamidation analysis at the intact AAV9 capsid protein level to routinely support downstream purification, formulation development, and stability testing. Similar trends of increasing deamidation of AAV9 capsid proteins in stability samples were observed at the intact protein level and peptide level, indicating that the developed direct deamidation analysis of intact AAV9 capsid proteins is comparable to the peptide mapping-based deamidation analysis and both methods are suitable for deamidation monitoring of AAV9 capsid proteins. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Yu Zhou, Yueju Wang. Direct deamidation analysis of intact adeno-associated virus serotype 9 capsid proteins using reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Analytical biochemistry. 2023 May 01;668:115099

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PMID: 36871622

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