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    Rice is a staple food for more than half of the world's population, and rice fragrance is a key quality attribute which is highly desired by consumers and attracts premium prices in the international market. There are around 200 volatile compounds involved in rice fragrance, but 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2-AP) has been considered a master regulator of aroma in fragrant rice. Consequently, efforts were made to increase the 2-AP contents in the grain by managing agronomical practices or by using modern functional genomic tools, which successfully converted nonfragrant cultivars to fragrant rice. Furthermore, environmental factors were also reported to influence the 2-AP contents. However, a comprehensive analysis of 2-AP biosynthesis in response to agro-management practices, environmental factors, and the application of functional genomic tools for fragrant rice production was missing. In this Review, we summarize how micro/macronutrients, cultivation practices, amino acid precursors, growth regulators, and environmental factors, such as drought, salinity, light, and temperature, influence the 2-AP biosynthesis to modulate the aroma of fragrant rice. Furthermore, we also summarized the successful conversion of nonfragrant rice cultivars to fragrant rice using modern gene editing tools, such as RNAi, TALENS, and CRISPR-Cas9. Finally, we discussed and highlighted the future perspective and challenges related to the aroma of fragrant rice.


    Muhammad Imran, Sarfraz Shafiq, Umair Ashraf, Jianying Qi, Zhaowen Mo, Xiangru Tang. Biosynthesis of 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline in Fragrant Rice: Recent Insights into Agro-management, Environmental Factors, and Functional Genomics. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2023 Mar 15;71(10):4201-4215

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    PMID: 36880506

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