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    Liverworts are a group of non-vascular plants that possess unique metabolism not found in other plants. Many liverwort metabolites have interesting structural and biochemical characteristics, however the fluctuations of these metabolites in response to stressors is largely unknown. To investigate the metabolic stress-response of the leafy liverwort Radula complanata. Five phytohormones were applied exogenously to in vitro cultured R. complanata and an untargeted metabolomic analysis was conducted. Compound classification and identification was performed with CANOPUS and SIRIUS while statistical analyses including PCA, ANOVA, and variable selection using BORUTA were conducted to identify metabolic shifts. It was found that R. complanata was predominantly composed of carboxylic acids and derivatives, followed by benzene and substituted derivatives, fatty acyls, organooxygen compounds, prenol lipids, and flavonoids. The PCA revealed that samples grouped based on the type of hormone applied, and the variable selection using BORUTA (Random Forest) revealed 71 identified and/or classified features that fluctuated with phytohormone application. The stress-response treatments largely reduced the production of the selected primary metabolites while the growth treatments resulted in increased production of these compounds. 4-(3-Methyl-2-butenyl)-5-phenethylbenzene-1,3-diol was identified as a biomarker for the growth treatments while GDP-hexose was identified as a biomarker for the stress-response treatments. Exogenous phytohormone application caused clear metabolic shifts in Radula complanata that deviate from the responses of vascular plants. Further identification of the selected metabolite features can reveal metabolic biomarkers unique to liverworts and provide more insight into liverwort stress responses. © 2023. The Author(s).

    Citation

    Kaitlyn Blatt-Janmaat, Steffen Neumann, Florian Schmidt, Jörg Ziegler, Yang Qu, Kristian Peters. Impact of in vitro phytohormone treatments on the metabolome of the leafy liverwort Radula complanata (L.) Dumort. Metabolomics : Official journal of the Metabolomic Society. 2023 Mar 09;19(3):17

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    PMID: 36892716

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