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Electrophysiological and structural disruptions in cardiac arrhythmias are closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondria are an organelle generating ATP, thereby satisfying the energy demand of the incessant electrical activity in the heart. In arrhythmias, the homeostatic supply-demand relationship is impaired, which is often accompanied by progressive mitochondrial dysfunction leading to reduced ATP production and elevated reactive oxidative species generation. Furthermore, ion homeostasis, membrane excitability, and cardiac structure can be disrupted through pathological changes in gap junctions and inflammatory signaling, which results in impaired cardiac electrical homeostasis. Herein, we review the electrical and molecular mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias, with a particular focus on mitochondrial dysfunction in ionic regulation and gap junction action. We provide an update on inherited and acquired mitochondrial dysfunction to explore the pathophysiology of different types of arrhythmias. In addition, we highlight the role of mitochondria in bradyarrhythmia, including sinus node dysfunction and atrioventricular node dysfunction. Finally, we discuss how confounding factors, such as aging, gut microbiome, cardiac reperfusion injury, and electrical stimulation, modulate mitochondrial function and cause tachyarrhythmia.


Jielin Deng, Yunqiu Jiang, Zhen Bouman Chen, June-Wha Rhee, Yingfeng Deng, Zhao V Wang. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cardiac Arrhythmias. Cells. 2023 Feb 21;12(5)

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PMID: 36899814

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