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Nitrification inhibitors (NIs), especially dicyandiamide (DCD) and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), have been extensively investigated to mitigate nitrogen (N) losses from the soil and thus improve crop productivity by enhancing N use efficiency. However, to provide crop and soil-specific guidelines about using these NIs, a quantitative assessment of their efficacy in mitigating gaseous emissions, worth for nitrate leaching, and improving crop productivity under different crops and soils is yet required. Therefore, based upon 146 peer-reviewed research studies, we conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the effect of DCD and DMPP on gaseous emissions, nitrate leaching, soil inorganic N, and crop productivity under different variates. The efficacy of the NIs in reducing the emissions of CO2, CH4, NO, and N2O highly depends on the crop, soil, and experiment types. The comparative efficacy of DCD in reducing N2O emission was higher than the DMPP under maize, grasses, and fallow soils in both organic and chemical fertilizer amended soils. The use of DCD was linked to increased NH3 emission in vegetables, rice, and grasses. Depending upon the crop, soil, and fertilizer type, both the NIs decreased nitrate leaching from soils; however, DMPP was more effective. Nevertheless, the effect of DCD on crop productivity indicators, including N uptake, N use efficiency, and biomass/yield was higher than DMPP due to certain factors. Moreover, among soils, crops, and fertilizer types, the response by plant productivity indicators to the application of NIs ranged between 35 and 43%. Overall, the finding of this meta-analysis strongly suggests the use of DCD and DMPP while considering the crop, fertilizer, and soil types. © 2023. The Author(s).


Muhammad Aammar Tufail, Muhammad Irfan, Wajid Umar, Abdul Wakeel, Ruth A Schmitz. Mediation of gaseous emissions and improving plant productivity by DCD and DMPP nitrification inhibitors: Meta-analysis of last three decades. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2023 May;30(23):64719-64735

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PMID: 36929253

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