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To present a patient with the first case of NTM (nontuberculous mycobacteria) infection of the larynx extending to cervical trachea, and the first case of subglottic stenosis associated with an NTM infection. Case report and review of the literature. A 68-year-old female with history of prior smoking, gastroesophageal reflux disease, asthma, bronchiectasis, and tracheobronchomalacia presented with a 3-month history of shortness of breath, exertional inspiratory stridor, and hoarseness. Flexible laryngoscopy demonstrated ulceration of medial aspect of right vocal fold and subglottic tissue abnormality with crusting and ulceration extending through the upper trachea. Microdirect laryngoscopy with tissue biopsies and carbon dioxide (CO2) laser ablation of disease completed, and intraoperative culture revealed positive Aspergillus and acid-fast bacilli with Mycobacterium abscessus (type of NTM). Patient began antimicrobial treatment of cefoxitin, imipenem, amikacin, azithromycin, clofazimine, and itraconazole. Fourteen months after initial presentation, patient developed subglottic stenosis with limited extension into the proximal trachea prompting CO2 laser incision, balloon dilation, and steroid injection of the subglottic stenosis. Patient remains disease free without further subglottic stenosis. Laryngeal NTM infections are exceedingly rare. Failure to consider NTM infection in the differential diagnosis when presented with an ulcerative, exophytic mass in patients with increased risk factors (structural lung disease, Pseudomonas colonization, chronic steroid use, prior NTM positivity) may result in insufficient tissue evaluation, delayed diagnosis, and disease progression.


Ryan J Lau, Taylor G Lackey, Von Samedi, Daniel S Fink. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection of Larynx and Cervical Trachea. The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. 2023 Nov;132(11):1487-1492

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PMID: 36951110

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