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Aphids are the most common insect vector transmitting hundreds of plant viruses. Aphid wing dimorphism (winged vs. wingless) not only showcases the phenotypic plasticity but also impacts virus transmission; however, the superiority of winged aphids in virus transmission over the wingless morph is not well understood. Here, we show that plant viruses were efficiently transmitted and highly infectious when associated with the winged morph of Myzus persicae and that a salivary protein contributed to this difference. The carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) gene was identified by RNA-seq of salivary glands to have higher expression in the winged morph. Aphids secreted CA-II into the apoplastic region of plant cells, leading to elevated accumulation of H+. Apoplastic acidification further increased the activities of polygalacturonases, the cell wall homogalacturonan (HG)-modifying enzymes, promoting degradation of demethylesterified HGs. In response to apoplastic acidification, plants accelerated vesicle trafficking to enhance pectin transport and strengthen the cell wall, which also facilitated virus translocation from the endomembrane system to the apoplast. Secretion of a higher quantity of salivary CA-II by winged aphids promoted intercellular vesicle transport in the plant. The higher vesicle trafficking induced by winged aphids enhanced dispersal of virus particles from infected cells to neighboring cells, thus resulting in higher virus infection in plants relative to the wingless morph. These findings imply that the difference in the expression of salivary CA-II between winged and wingless morphs is correlated with the vector role of aphids during the posttransmission infection process, which influences the outcome of plant endurance of virus infection.


Huijuan Guo, Yanjing Zhang, Bingyu Li, Chenwei Li, Qingyun Shi, Keyan Zhu-Salzman, Feng Ge, Yucheng Sun. Salivary carbonic anhydrase II in winged aphid morph facilitates plant infection by viruses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2023 Apr 04;120(14):e2222040120

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PMID: 36976769

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