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Hyperuricemia is an overlooked cardiovascular and renal risk factor. Epidemiological and genetic studies have shown an independent role of uric acid in the risk of coronary artery disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular mortality. Treatment options include xanthine oxidase inhibitors, uricosuric medications, and the recombinant uricases. Whether to treat asymptomatic hyperuricemia, and to which target, remains debated. However, the results of recent trials and meta-analysis seem to support this therapeutic strategy. In the present review, we summarized current therapeutic indications and options for the treatment of symptomatic and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. Furthermore, we searched the recent literature (last 5 years: 2018 to 2022) to report the results of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis on cardiovascular and nephroprotective effects of hypouricemic agents. Future large well-designed clinical trials on the role of hypouricemic agents in nephroprotection and cardiovascular prevention and treatment are warranted and may extend their indications and use, with a direct impact on morbidity and mortality. Differentiating between hyperproducing and hypoexcreting phenotypes may help designing future trials improving the consistency of results. Finally, medications with cardio and nephroprotective properties have shown to reduce serum uric acid levels and may be used in patients with hyperuricemia and other cardiovascular complications.


Federica Piani, Davide Agnoletti, Claudio Borghi. Advances in pharmacotherapies for hyperuricemia. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy. 2023 Apr;24(6):737-745

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PMID: 36999206

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