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    Bone marrow edema syndrome (BMES) is a relatively uncommon clinical condition. It has been poorly reported in the literature. Hence, doctors are not sufficiently aware of the disease and are prone to misdiagnosis and mistreatment, which can undoubtedly prolong the course of the disease, reduce the quality of life of patients and even affect their function. This paper reviews the literature and summarizes the treatment options for bone marrow edema syndrome, such as symptomatic treatment, extracorporeal shock waves therapy (ESWT), pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEFs), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO), vitamin D, iloprost, bisphosphonates, denosumab, and surgery, etc. This informs clinicians in treating bone marrow edema syndrome, hopefully improving patients' quality of life and shortening the duration of their disease. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Shihong Li, Huimin Yu, Shiwei Long, Jian Li, Yang He, Xiaolong Zheng, Shuang Yang, Yingchao Tang, Qingyun Xie, Wei Zheng. Research Advances in the Treatment of Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome. Journal of clinical densitometry : the official journal of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry. 2023 Apr-Jun;26(2):101367

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    PMID: 37005106

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