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    Deltamethrin (DLM), a broad-spectrum pesticide, has been proven to have toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Here, we detected the formation of extracellular traps (ETosis) formation in Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) hemocytes stimulated by three concentrations of DLM (0.01, 0.1 and 1 μg/mL) in vitro, and explored the underlying mechanisms induced by this pesticide. Extracellular DNA structure observation and quantitative results indicated that DLM exposure could obviously induce hemocytes ETosis, especially under high concentration of DLM induction. Moreover, DLM increased the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a dose-dependent manner, and enhanced the mRNA expression of several ROS-related genes. DPI (NADPH oxidase inhibitor) and ABAH (MPO inhibitor) could substantially inhibit DLM-induced extracellular traps (ETs), suggesting that the induced ETs release was caused by the induction of the ROS burst and MPO production. In addition, three concentrations of DLM-induced ETs were also accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction, such as increasing the production of mitochondrial ROS, leading to a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and activation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). Taken together, these results will shed new light on the immunotoxicity of DLM in clams and perhaps lays the foundation for health assessment in bivalves. Copyright © 2023 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Yijing Han, Qianqian Zhang, Lizhu Chen, Jianmin Zhao, Dinglong Yang. In vitro study of deltamethrin-induced extracellular traps in hemocytes of Ruditapes philippinarum. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2023 May;256:114909

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    PMID: 37062260

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