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    Highly oxygenated cardiotonic steroids, such as ouabain, possess a wide spectrum of biological functions and remain significant synthetic challenges. Herein, we have applied an unsaturation-functionalization strategy and developed a synthetic method in addressing the C19-hydroxylation issue for efficient synthesis of polyhydroxylated steroids. An effective asymmetric dearomative cyclization allowed the construction of the C19-hydroxy unsaturated steroidal skeleton in only four steps from the Hajos-Parrish ketone ketal 7. The synthetic sequence featured C3-OH-directed hydrogenation/epoxidation, m-CPBA-triggered epoxidation/SN 2' nucleophilic substitution, Birch reduction of an enone, and regioselective LiAlH4 reduction to furnish the polyhydroxy functionalities on the steroid skeleton with high stereochemical control and efficiency. This approach ultimately enabled the total synthesis of 19-hydroxysarmentogenin and ouabagenin in 18 and 19 steps, respectively, overall. The synthesis of these polyhydroxylated steroids offers synthetic versatility and practicality in the search for new therapeutic agents. © 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.


    Jiawei Sun, Yuan Chen, Sherif Shaban Ragab, Wei Gu, Ziqiang Tang, Yuexun Tang, Wenjun Tang. Total Syntheses of Polyhydroxylated Steroids by an Unsaturation-Functionalization Strategy. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English). 2023 Jun 12;62(24):e202303639

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    PMID: 37084230

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