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2'-O-Methoxyethyl antisense oligonucleotide (2'-MOE ASO)-induced severe thrombocytopenia (TCP) [platelet (PLT) count <50 K/μL] was observed in the Asian-sourced cynomolgus monkeys with low incidence (2%-4% at doses >5 mg/kg/week). The potential mechanisms for TCP were studied using the Mauritian-sourced cynomolgus monkeys, which were shown to be more susceptible to ASO-induced TCP, along with the Asian-sourced animals. ISIS 405879, a 2'-MOE ASO, induced severe TCP (PLT <50 K/μL) in seven of nine Mauritian-sourced monkeys but not in the Asian-sourced monkeys after 16 weeks of treatment at 40 mg/kg/week. Marked increases in PLT-bound C3d/C4d were detected in all thrombocytopenic Mauritian-sourced monkeys but not in the unaffected Mauritian- or Asian-sourced monkeys, suggesting increased PLT clearance due to complement deposition on the PLTs. However, this effect was independent of the ASO-mediated fluid-phase alternative complement activation. A correlation was also observed between serum antiglycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa immunoglobulin G (IgG) and PLT reduction. In addition, increases in total serum IgM, anti-PLT IgM, and anti-PLT factor 4 IgM levels were observed in monkeys from both sources but were more evident in the Mauritian-sourced monkeys. These data suggest an enhanced innate immune cell activation to ISIS 405879, leading to increased PLT destruction through complement fixation on the PLTs or PLT crossreacting polyclonal antibody production.


Lijiang Shen, Andrea Wong, Satoru Oneda, Brian R Curtis, Joe Schroeder, Tom Zanardi, Jeffery A Engelhardt, Scott P Henry, Padmakumar Narayanan. Complement C3d/C4d Deposition on Platelets Correlates with 2'-O-Methoxyethyl Antisense Oligonucleotide-Induced Thrombocytopenia in Monkeys. Nucleic acid therapeutics. 2023 Jun;33(3):209-225

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PMID: 37093125

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