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The physico-chemical properties of the scaffold materials used for tissue regeneration strategies have a direct impact on cell shape, adhesion, proliferation, phenotypic and differentiation. Herewith, biophysical and biochemical cues have been widely used to design and develop biomaterial systems for specific tissue engineering strategies. In this context, the patterning of piezoelectric polymers that can provide electroactive stimuli represents a suitable strategy for skeletal muscle tissue engineering applications once it has been demonstrated that mechanoelectrical stimuli promote C2C12 myoblast differentiation. In this sense, this works reports on how C2C12 myoblast cells detect and react to physical and biochemical stimuli based on micropatterned poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) electroactive scaffolds produced by soft lithography in the form of arrays of lines and hexagons (anisotropic and isotropic morphology, respectively) combined with differentiation medium. The scaffolds were evaluated for the proliferation and differentiation of C2C12 myoblast cell line and it is demonstrated that anisotropic microstructures promote muscle differentiation which is further reinforced with the introduction of biochemical stimulus. However, when the physical stimulus is not adequate to the tissue, e.g. isotropic microstructure, the biochemical stimulus has the opposite effect, hindering the differentiation process. Therefore, the proper morphological design of the scaffold combined with biochemical stimulus allows to enhance skeletal muscle differentiation and allows the development of advanced strategies for effective muscle tissue engineering. Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Sylvie Ribeiro, Teresa Marques-Almeida, Vanessa F Cardoso, Clarisse Ribeiro, Senentxu Lanceros-Méndez. Modulation of myoblast differentiation by electroactive scaffold morphology and biochemical stimuli. Biomaterials advances. 2023 Aug;151:213438

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PMID: 37121084

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