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    STIM1 and Orai1 are the central core of the Store Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE). This calcium influx mechanism is triggered after the activation of Gq protein-coupled receptors at the plasma membrane (PM) that activate phospholipase C. The phospholipase C produces Inositol triphosphate (IP3) which rapidly diffuses throughout the cytosol, resulting in the binding and activation of IP3 receptors (IP3R) and the rapid efflux of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytosol. The calcium depletion in the ER is sensed by the stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) a single-pass transmembrane protein at the ER that binds intraluminal calcium through an EF-hand domain in its amino terminal region (Fig. 1A). The cytosolic portion of STIM1 contains multiple domains. The region that interacts and activates Orai channels is known as SOAR (the STIM1 Orai activating region) [1]. For SOAR be accessible to Orai1, STIM1 must get an extended conformation that unlocks SOAR from its coiled-coil 1 (CC1) region [2]. The extended conformation is triggered by calcium depletion at the ER that oligomerizes STIM1. The oligomers of STIM1 then translocate to a close distance between two opposing membranes, forming what is known as ER-PM junctions. STIM1 accumulates at ER-PM junctions conforming the denominated STIM1 puncta. Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


    Jonathan Pacheco, Alicia Sampieri, Luis Vaca. STIM1: The lord of the rings? Cell calcium. 2023 Jun;112:102742

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    PMID: 37126913

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