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A definitive diagnosis of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (eCRS) requires invasive surgical tissue sampling and histologic enumeration of intact eosinophils. Eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) is an accurate biomarker of sinonasal tissue eosinophilia in CRS regardless of polyp status. A less invasive and rapid method that accurately identifies tissue eosinophilia would be of great benefit to patients. We sought to evaluate a new clinical tool that uses a nasal swab and colorimetric EPX activity assay to predict a diagnosis of eCRS. A prospective, observational cohort study was conducted using nasal swabs and sinonasal tissue biopsies obtained from patients with CRS electing endoscopic sinus surgery. Patients were classified as non-eCRS (n = 19) and eCRS (n = 35) on the basis of pathologically determined eosinophil counts of less than 10 or greater than or equal to 10 eosinophils/HPF, respectively. Swab-deposited EPX activity was measured and compared with tissue eosinophil counts, EPX levels, and CRS-specific disease metrics. EPX activity was significantly increased in patients with eCRS than in patients without eCRS (P < .0001). With a relative absorbance unit cutoff value of greater than or equal to 0.80, the assay demonstrated high sensitivity (85.7%) and moderate specificity (79.0%) for confirming eCRS. Spearman correlations between EPX activity and tissue eosinophil counts (rs = 0.424), EPX levels (rs = 0.503), and Lund-Kennedy endoscopy scores (rs = 0.440) in eCRS were significant (P < .05). This investigation evaluates a nasal swab sampling method and EPX activity assay that accurately confirms eCRS. This method could potentially address the unmet need to identify sinonasal tissue eosinophilia at the point-of-care, as well as to longitudinally monitor eosinophil activity and treatment response. Copyright © 2023 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Citation

Kristine A Smith, Amarbir S Gill, Chelsea E Pollard, Jorgen S Sumsion, Hedieh Saffari, Shaelene Ashby, Benjamin L Witt, Paige A Shipman, David A Gabrielsen, Michael T Yim, Joshua M Levy, Gretchen M Oakley, Richard R Orlandi, Gerald J Gleich, Jeremiah A Alt, Abigail Pulsipher. An eosinophil peroxidase activity assay accurately predicts eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology. 2023 Aug;152(2):400-407

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PMID: 37148919

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