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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological, immune-mediated demyelinating disease that affects people in the prime of life. Environmental, infectious, and genetic factors have been implicated in its etiology, although a definitive cause has yet to be determined. Nevertheless, multiple disease-modifying therapies (DMTs: including interferons, glatiramer acetate, fumarates, cladribine, teriflunomide, fingolimod, siponimod, ozanimod, ponesimod, and monoclonal antibodies targeting ITGA4, CD20, and CD52) have been developed and approved for the treatment of MS. All the DMTs approved to date target immunomodulation as their mechanism of action (MOA); however, the direct effects of some DMTs on the central nervous system (CNS), particularly sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor (S1PR) modulators, implicate a parallel MOA that may also reduce neurodegenerative sequelae. This review summarizes the currently approved DMTs for the treatment of MS and provides details and recent advances in the molecular pharmacology, immunopharmacology, and neuropharmacology of S1PR modulators, with a special focus on the CNS-oriented, astrocyte-centric MOA of fingolimod. Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Inc.


Yasuyuki Kihara, Jerold Chun. Molecular and neuroimmune pharmacology of S1P receptor modulators and other disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 2023 Jun;246:108432

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PMID: 37149155

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