Correlation Engine 2.0
Clear Search sequence regions

Sizes of these terms reflect their relevance to your search.

Biallelic loss-of-function FAM20A mutations cause amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) type IG, better known as enamel renal syndrome (ERS), characterized by severe enamel hypoplasia, delayed/failed tooth eruption, intrapulpal calcifications, gingival hyperplasia and nephrocalcinosis. FAM20A binds to FAM20C, the Golgi casein kinase (GCK) and potentiates its function to phosphorylate secreted proteins critical for biomineralization. While many FAM20A pathogenic mutations have been reported, the pathogeneses of orodental anomalies in ERS remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to identify disease-causing mutations for patients with ERS phenotypes and to discern the molecular mechanism underlying ERS intrapulpal calcifications. Phenotypic characterization and whole exome analyses were conducted for 8 families and 2 sporadic cases with hypoplastic AI. A minigene assay was performed to investigate the molecular consequences of a FAM20A splice-site variant. RNA sequencing followed by transcription profiling and gene ontology (GO) analyses were carried out for dental pulp tissues of ERS and the control. Biallelic FAM20A mutations were demonstrated for each affected individual, including 7 novel pathogenic variants: c.590-5T>A, c.625T>A (p.Cys209Ser), c.771del (p.Gln258Argfs*28), c.832_835delinsTGTCCGACGGTGTCCGACGGTGTC CA (p.Val278Cysfs*29), c.1232G>A (p.Arg411Gln), c.1297A>G (p.Arg433Gly) and c.1351del (p.Gln451Serfs*4). The c.590-5T>A splice-site mutation caused Exon 3 skipping, which resulted in an in-frame deletion of a unique region of the FAM20A protein, p.(Asp197_Ile214delinsVal). Analyses of differentially expressed genes in ERS pulp tissues demonstrated that genes involved in biomineralization, particularly dentinogenesis, were significantly upregulated, such as DSPP, MMP9, MMP20 and WNT10A. Enrichment analyses indicated overrepresentation of gene sets associated with BMP and SMAD signalling pathways. In contrast, GO terms related to inflammation and axon development were underrepresented. Among BMP signalling genes, BMP agonists GDF7, GDF15, BMP3, BMP8A, BMP8B, BMP4 and BMP6 were upregulated, while BMP antagonists GREM1, BMPER and VWC2 showed decreased expression in ERS dental pulp tissues. Upregulation of BMP signalling underlies intrapulpal calcifications in ERS. FAM20A plays an essential role in pulp tissue homeostasis and prevention of ectopic mineralization in soft tissues. This critical function probably depends upon MGP (matrix Gla protein), a potent mineralization inhibitor that must be properly phosphorylated by FAM20A-FAM20C kinase complex. © 2023 British Endodontic Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Shih-Kai Wang, Hong Zhang, Yin-Lin Wang, Hung-Ying Lin, Figen Seymen, Mine Koruyucu, J Timothy Wright, Jung-Wook Kim, James P Simmer, Jan C-C Hu. FAM20A mutations and transcriptome analyses of dental pulp tissues of enamel renal syndrome. International endodontic journal. 2023 Aug;56(8):943-954

Expand section icon Mesh Tags

Expand section icon Substances

PMID: 37159186

View Full Text