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The aim of the study was to analyze physiological and energetic demands of elite gymnasts during still-rings routines (SRRs). Eleven male gymnasts (mean [SD] 23.6 [3.9] y, 65.9 [5.6] kg, 171.1 [6.7] cm) performed a maximal graded exercise test and an individual SRR, during which respiratory gas and heart rate (HR) were measured using a mobile spiroergometer and a paired HR sensor. Metabolic energy and the energy contribution in terms of aerobic, anaerobic lactic, and anaerobic alactic were determined by oxygen uptake (VO2) during exercise, net lactate production, and the fast component of postexercise VO2 kinetics. Mean routine duration of the SRRs was 48.3 (4.5) seconds. VO2 and HR during SRRs were shown to be 86.9% (5.9%) and 91.0% (3.3%), respectively, of the maximal values measured during the graded exercise test. The anaerobic alactic, aerobic, and anaerobic lactic systems provided 50.9% (6.6%), 28.6% (4.8%), and 20.5% (5.2%), respectively, of the total energy required during SRRs. The energy contribution of the anaerobic lactic system correlated negatively with individual anaerobic threshold (r = -.715) and maximal VO2 (r = -.682). The anaerobic alactic system is the predominant energy source for ATP resynthesis during SRRs. The high relative VO2 and HR values reached during SRRs show that these routines strongly stress the cardiovascular system.


Alexander Seemann-Sinn, Peter Rüdrich, Tom Gorges, Falk Naundorf, Bernd Wolfarth. Physiological and Energetic Demands During Still-Rings Routines of Elite Artistic Gymnasts. International journal of sports physiology and performance. 2023 Jul 01;18(7):704-710

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PMID: 37160292

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