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Magnesium (Mg2+ ) is the most abundant divalent cation in cells and plays key roles in almost all biological processes. CBS-pair domain divalent metal cation transport mediators (CNNMs) are a newly characterized class of Mg2+ transporters present throughout biology. Originally discovered in bacteria, there are four CNNM proteins in humans, which are involved in divalent cation transport, genetic diseases, and cancer. Eukaryotic CNNMs are composed of four domains: an extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, a cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS)-pair domain, and a cyclic nucleotide-binding homology domain. The transmembrane and CBS-pair core are the defining features of CNNM proteins with over 20 000 protein sequences known from over 8000 species. Here, we review the structural and functional studies of eukaryotic and prokaryotic CNNMs that underlie our understanding of their regulation and mechanism of ion transport. Recent structures of prokaryotic CNNMs confirm the transmembrane domain mediates ion transport with the CBS-pair domain likely playing a regulatory role through binding divalent cations. Studies of mammalian CNNMs have identified new binding partners. These advances are driving progress in understanding this deeply conserved and widespread family of ion transporters.© 2023 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.


Yu Seby Chen, Kalle Gehring. New insights into the structure and function of CNNM proteins. The FEBS journal. 2023 May 24

PMID: 37222397

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