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    Fruit sweetness is determined by the amount and composition of sugars in the edible flesh. The accumulation of sugar is a highly orchestrated process that requires coordination of numerous metabolic enzymes and sugar transporters. This coordination enables partitioning and long-distance translocation of photoassimilates from source tissues to sink organs. In fruit crops, sugars ultimately accumulate in the sink fruit. Whereas tremendous progress has been achieved in understanding the function of individual genes associated with sugar metabolism and sugar transport in non-fruit crops, there is less known about the sugar transporters and metabolic enzymes responsible for sugar accumulation in fruit crop species. This review identifies knowledge gaps and can serve as a foundation for future studies, with comprehensive updates focusing on (1) the physiological roles of the metabolic enzymes and sugar transporters responsible for sugar allocation and partitioning and that contribute to sugar accumulation in fruit crops; and (2) the molecular mechanisms underlying the transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of sugar transport and metabolism. We also provide insights into the challenges and future directions of studies on sugar transporters and metabolic enzymes and name several promising genes that should be targeted with gene editing in the pursuit of optimized sugar allocation and partitioning to enhance sugar accumulation in fruits. © American Society of Plant Biologists 2023. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:


    Yi Ren, Shengjin Liao, Yong Xu. An update on sugar allocation and accumulation in fruits. Plant physiology. 2023 Sep 22;193(2):888-899

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    PMID: 37224524

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