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Yellow fever (YF) is an acute tropical infectious disease caused by an arbovirus and can manifest as a classic hemorrhagic fever. The mechanism of the bleeding diathesis in YF is not well understood. We assessed clinical and laboratory data (including a panel of coagulation tests) from 46 patients with moderate (M) and severe (S) YF admitted to a local hospital between January 2018 and April 2018. Among 46 patients, 34 had SYF of whom 12 (35%) patients died. A total of 21 (45%) patients developed some type of bleeding manifestation and 15 (32%) presented severe bleeding. Patients with SYF had more severe thrombocytopenia (p = 0.001); prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin time (TT) (p = 0.03 and p = 0.005, respectively); reduced plasma levels of coagulation factor (F) II (p < 0.01), FIX (p = 0.01), and FX (p = 0.04); and D-dimer levels almost 10 times higher (p < 0.01) when compared with patients with MYF. Patients who died had more bleeding (p = 0.03), more major bleeding (p = 0.03), prolonged international normalized ratio (INR) and aPTT (p = 0.003 and p = 0.002, respectively), as well as lower activity of FII (p = 0.02), FV (p = 0.001), FVII (p = 0.005), FIX (p = 0.01), and protein C (p = 0.01) than the ones who survived. FVIII levels were either normal or increased in all patients studied. Our results suggest that the bleeding diathesis of SYF is associated with the deficiency of coagulation factors produced by the liver. Prolonged INR and aPTT and reduced FII, FV, FVII, FIX, and protein C were associated with death. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

Citation

Mariana Brandão Franco, Leticia Lemos Jardim, Beatriz Nogueira de Carvalho, Fernando Basques, Daniel Dias Ribeiro, Leonardo Soares Pereira, Suely Meireles Rezende. Deficiency of coagulation factors is associated with the bleeding diathesis of severe yellow fever. Annals of hematology. 2023 Jul;102(7):1939-1949

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PMID: 37226021

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