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    The axonemal microtubules of primary cilium undergo a conserved protein posttranslational modification (PTM) - polyglutamylation. This reversible procedure is processed by tubulin tyrosine ligase-like polyglutamylases to form secondary polyglutamate side chains, which are metabolized by the 6-member cytosolic carboxypeptidase (CCP) family. Although polyglutamylation modifying enzymes have been linked to ciliary architecture and motility, it was unknown whether they also play a role in ciliogenesis. In this study, we found that CCP5 expression is transiently downregulated upon the initiation of ciliogenesis, but recovered after cilia are formed. Overexpression of CCP5 inhibited ciliogenesis, suggesting that a transient downregulation of CCP5 expression is required for ciliation initiation. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of CCP5 on ciliogenesis does not rely on its enzyme activity. Among other 3 CCP members tested, only CCP6 can similarly suppress ciliogenesis. Using CoIP-MS analysis, we identified a protein that potentially interacts with CCP - CP110, a known negative regulator of ciliogenesis, whose degradation at the distal end of mother centriole permits cilia assembly. We found that both CCP5 and CCP6 can modulate CP110 level. Particularly, CCP5 interacts with CP110 through its N-terminus. Loss of CCP5 or CCP6 led to the disappearance of CP110 at the mother centriole and abnormally increased ciliation in cycling RPE-1 cells. Co-depletion of CCP5 and CCP6 synergized this abnormal ciliation, suggesting their partially overlapped function in suppressing cilia formation in cycling cells. In contrast, co-depletion of the two enzymes did not further increase the length of cilia, although CCP5 and CCP6 differentially regulate polyglutamate side-chain length of ciliary axoneme and both contribute to limiting cilia length, suggesting that they may share a common pathway in cilia length control. Through inducing the overexpression of CCP5 or CCP6 at different stages of ciliogenesis, we further demonstrated that CCP5 or CCP6 inhibited cilia formation before ciliogenesis, while shortened the length of cilia after cilia formation. These findings reveal the dual role of CCP5 and CCP6. In addition to regulating cilia length, they also retain CP110 level to suppress cilia formation in cycling cells, pointing to a novel regulatory mechanism for ciliogenesis mediated by demodifying enzymes of a conserved ciliary PTM, polyglutamylation. © 2023. The Author(s).


    Yujuan Wang, Yuan Zhang, Xinyu Guo, Yiqiang Zheng, Xinjie Zhang, Shanshan Feng, Hui-Yuan Wu. CCP5 and CCP6 retain CP110 and negatively regulate ciliogenesis. BMC biology. 2023 May 24;21(1):124

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    PMID: 37226238

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