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    Early cancer diagnosis plays a critical role in improving treatment outcomes and increasing survival rates for certain cancers. NIR spectroscopy offers a rapid and cost-effective approach to evaluate the optical properties of tissues at the microvessel level and provides valuable molecular insights. The integration of NIR spectroscopy with advanced data-driven algorithms in portable instruments has made it a cutting-edge technology for medical applications. NIR spectroscopy is a simple, non-invasive and affordable analytical tool that complements expensive imaging modalities such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and computed tomography. By examining tissue absorption, scattering, and concentrations of oxygen, water, and lipids, NIR spectroscopy can reveal inherent differences between tumor and normal tissue, often revealing specific patterns that help stratify disease. In addition, the ability of NIR spectroscopy to assess tumor blood flow, oxygenation, and oxygen metabolism provides a key paradigm for its application in cancer diagnosis. This review evaluates the effectiveness of NIR spectroscopy in the detection and characterization of disease, particularly in cancer, with or without the incorporation of chemometrics and machine learning algorithms. The report highlights the potential of NIR spectroscopy technology to significantly improve discrimination between benign and malignant tumors and accurately predict treatment outcomes. In addition, as more medical applications are studied in large patient cohorts, consistent advances in clinical implementation can be expected, making NIR spectroscopy a valuable adjunct technology for cancer therapy management. Ultimately, the integration of NIR spectroscopy into cancer diagnostics promises to improve prognosis by providing critical new insights into cancer patterns and physiology. Copyright © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Rui Vitorino, António S Barros, Sofia Guedes, Douglas C Caixeta, Robinson Sabino-Silva. Diagnostic and monitoring applications using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in cancer and other diseases. Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy. 2023 Jun;42:103633

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    PMID: 37245681

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