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Arabidopsis plastid antiporters KEA1 and KEA2 are critical for plastid development, photosynthetic efficiency, and plant development. Here, we show that KEA1 and KEA2 are involved in vacuolar protein trafficking. Genetic analyses found that the kea1 kea2 mutants had short siliques, small seeds, and short seedlings. Molecular and biochemical assays showed that seed storage proteins were missorted out of the cell and the precursor proteins were accumulated in kea1 kea2. Protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) were smaller in kea1 kea2. Further analyses showed that endosomal trafficking in kea1 kea2 was compromised. Vacuolar sorting receptor 1 (VSR1) subcellular localizations, VSR-cargo interactions, and p24 distribution on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus were affected in kea1 kea2. Moreover, plastid stromule growth was reduced and plastid association with the endomembrane compartments was disrupted in kea1 kea2. Stromule growth was regulated by the cellular pH and K+ homeostasis maintained by KEA1 and KEA2. The organellar pH along the trafficking pathway was altered in kea1 kea2. Overall, KEA1 and KEA2 regulate vacuolar trafficking by controlling the function of plastid stromules via adjusting pH and K+ homeostasis. © 2023 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.


Xiao Zhang, Lu Wang, Ting Pan, Xuexia Wu, Jinbo Shen, Liwen Jiang, Hiromi Tajima, Eduardo Blumwald, Quan-Sheng Qiu. Plastid KEA-type cation/H+ antiporters are required for vacuolar protein trafficking in Arabidopsis. Journal of integrative plant biology. 2023 Sep;65(9):2157-2174

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PMID: 37252889

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