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    Chromium (Cr) is prevalently found in trivalent and hexavalent forms. Though the former is toxicologically benign due to its poor cellular permeability, hexavalent chromium i.e. Cr [VI] crosses the biological membrane and induces toxic effects in organisms. While Cr [VI] toxicity in humans is a subject of occupational exposure at industries involved in ferrochrome production, leather tanning, textile dyeing etc., aquatic abundance of Cr [VI] due to discharge of Cr-laden effluents by these industries lead to extensive toxicity in piscine species. The present review aims to discuss the mode of Cr [VI] entry in fish and the several inimical effects that it imparts on fish health. Such effects have been reported in various studies through behavioral, hormonal and hematological alterations. Bio-accumulation of Cr [VI] in vital organs and subsequent perturbation of the oxidative homeostasis leads to organotoxic effects like changes in organo-somatic indices and histo-architecture. At cellular level, Cr [VI] induced genotoxicity is often found to trigger cellular demise including apoptosis. This review also highlights the stress response in fish against Cr [VI] induced toxicity that is mediated through the expressional alteration of a myriad of anti-oxidant and xenobiotic-metabolizing proteins which is, in turn, a function of activated transcription programs including the Nrf2-ARE pathway. Copyright © 2023 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Sreejata Kamila, Pallab Shaw, Shehnaz Islam, Ansuman Chattopadhyay. Ecotoxicology of hexavalent chromium in fish: An updated review. The Science of the total environment. 2023 Sep 10;890:164395

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    PMID: 37257624

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