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    Mycobacteria are responsible for several human and animal diseases. NOD2 is a pattern recognition receptor that has an important role in mycobacterial recognition. However, the mechanisms by which mutations in NOD2 alter the course of mycobacterial infection remain unclear. Herein, we aimed to review the totality of studies directly addressing the relationship between NOD2 and mycobacteria as a foundation for moving the field forward. NOD2 was linked to mycobacterial infection at 3 levels: (1) genetic, through association with mycobacterial diseases of humans; (2) chemical, through the distinct NOD2 ligand in the mycobacterial cell wall; and (3) immunologic, through heightened NOD2 signaling caused by the unique modification of the NOD2 ligand. The immune response to mycobacteria is shaped by NOD2 signaling, responsible for NF-κB and MAPK activation, and the production of various immune effectors like cytokines and nitric oxide, with some evidence linking this to bacteriologic control. Absence of NOD2 during mycobacterial infection of mice can be detrimental, but the mechanism remains unknown. Conversely, the success of immunization with mycobacteria has been linked to NOD2 signaling and NOD2 has been targeted as an avenue of immunotherapy for diseases even beyond mycobacteria. The mycobacteria-NOD2 interaction remains an important area of study, which may shed light on immune mechanisms in disease. Copyright: © 2023 Dubé, Behr. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


    Jean-Yves Dubé, Marcel A Behr. A nod to the bond between NOD2 and mycobacteria. PLoS pathogens. 2023 Jun;19(6):e1011389

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    PMID: 37262021

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