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    The pathogenesis of immune tolerance disruption is not fully understood. Galectin-9 (Gal9) has immune regulatory functions. The objective of the present study is to assess the role of Gal9 in maintaining immune tolerance. Blood and intestinal biopsies were taken from patients with food allergy (FA). The status of tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDC) and type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1 cells) in the samples was evaluated and used as representative parameters of immune tolerance. An FA mouse model was established to assess the role of Gal9 in maintaining immune tolerance. We found that peripheral CD11c+ CD5+ CD1d+ tDC frequency was significantly lower in FA patients as compared to health control (HC) subjects. There was no significant change in CD11c+ DC frequency between the FA group and the HC group. The expression of IL-10 in peripheral tDCs was lower in the FA group than that in the HC group. A positive correlation was detected between the serum levels of IL-10 and Gal9. The expression of Gal9 was observed in intestinal biopsies, which was positively correlated with the serum levels of Gal9 as well as serum IL-10 levels. Peripheral Tr1 cells had lower frequencies in the FA group than in the non-FA (Con) group. tDCs demonstrated the ability to generate Tr1 cells, which was weaker in the FA group as compared with the Con group. Exposure of FA tDCs to Gal9 in culture restored the ability to generate Tr1 cells. In summary, the lower frequency of tDC and Tr1 cell of FA patients was associated with the levels of Gal9. The presence of Gal9 restored the capacity of tDC to generate Tr1 cells. © The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Immunology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:


    Linjing Li, Xuejie Xu, Xinxin Wang, Shuang Zhang, Wenkai Yao, Jiangqi Liu, Zhiqiang Liu, Pingchang Yang. Galectin-9 in synergy with NF-κB inhibition restores immune regulatory capability in dendritic cells of subjects with food allergy. Clinical and experimental immunology. 2023 Jul 21;213(2):155-163

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    PMID: 37279535

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