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    House flies, Musca domestica, L., (Diptera: Muscidae) are well-known pests at animal facilities; however, they can be used for manure biodegradation. Utilizing house flies to process animal manure offers a means to recycle nutrients and reduce contaminants (e.g., pathogens and heavy metals), while also producing multiple revenue streams (e.g., protein for feed, fat for biodiesel, frass as a soil amendment). This study determined house fly larval performance on a larger scale (kilogram of wastes; thousands of larvae; single feeding) as a follow-up to a previous experiment performed at a bench-top scale (g of wastes; hundreds of larvae; incremental feeding). Four thousand larvae were fed 1 kg of swine, dairy, or poultry manure, or a control (Gainesville diet: 50% wheat bran, 30% alfalfa meal, and 20% corn meal). Peak larval weight occurred 4 days after inoculation and no significant difference in development time to first pupariation occurred across diets. However, percent survivorship to pupariation varied, with the highest occurring in Gainesville (74%), swine (73%), and poultry (67%) manure, whereas 50% survived when fed dairy manure. The highest pupal weight was found for those fed Gainesville (27 mg), and similar weights were found for those fed swine (21 mg), dairy (24 mg), and poultry (25 mg) manure. Although using house flies to manage manure has received little consideration in Western countries, other regions have this practice in place. Results may provide insight on differences between small- and large-scale studies, which is valuable for industrialization of this species for waste management and creating a more circular economy. © The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:


    Chelsea D Miranda, Jonathan A Cammack, Jeffery K Tomberlin. Large-scale production of house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae), larvae fed 3 manure types. Journal of economic entomology. 2023 Aug 10;116(4):1102-1109

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    PMID: 37279773

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