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Fifty years since the initial discovery of HMGB1 in 1973 as a structural protein of chromatin, HMGB1 is now known to regulate diverse biological processes depending on its subcellular or extracellular localization. These functions include promoting DNA damage repair in the nucleus, sensing nucleic acids and inducing innate immune responses and autophagy in the cytosol and binding protein partners in the extracellular environment and stimulating immunoreceptors. In addition, HMGB1 is a broad sensor of cellular stress that balances cell death and survival responses essential for cellular homeostasis and tissue maintenance. HMGB1 is also an important mediator secreted by immune cells that is involved in a range of pathological conditions, including infectious diseases, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, autoimmunity, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, metabolic disorders and cancer. In this Review, we discuss the signalling mechanisms, cellular functions and clinical relevance of HMGB1 and describe strategies to modify its release and biological activities in the setting of various diseases.© 2023. Springer Nature Limited.

Citation

Daolin Tang, Rui Kang, Herbert J Zeh, Michael T Lotze. The multifunctional protein HMGB1: 50 years of discovery. Nature reviews. Immunology. 2023 Jun 15


PMID: 37322174

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