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    Over the years, the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) has become widespread among athletes and bodybuilders. The prevalence of their use has been estimated at around 20 to 50% globally. Unfortunately, many athletes do not have the proper knowledge about the effects of these banned substances Thus, this study aims to qualitatively assess Jordanian gym users' AAS intentions, perceptions, and safety. Twenty male Jordanian anabolic steroid users were interviewed using in-depth interviews as part of a qualitative study evaluating the motivations, perceptions, and safety of AAS among gym users. The findings of this study indicate that the desire to compete in bodybuilding contests was the primary motivation for participants to use AAS. The study participants mentioned using a combination of oral and injectable medications. Gym coaches and trainers were also identified as an essential source of information for AAS use. A very limited number of AAS users were getting their information from healthcare providers, and most of them have experienced some of these medications side effects but are still willing to continue the use of AAS to get what they need in terms of their physical appearance or for winning competitions. There is an urgent need for structured awareness campaigns targeting gyms and fitness clubs' members to increase their knowledge about the side effects and health risks associated with the use of AAS. In addition, sports governing bodies should have stricter measures to tackle this problem and discourage athletes from using such products. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


    Nawal Izzat, Rana Abu-Farha, Mea'ad M Harahsheh, Samar Thiab. A qualitative assessment of anabolic-androgenic steroid use among gym users in Jordan: motives, perception, and safety. International journal of legal medicine. 2023 Sep;137(5):1421-1430

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    PMID: 37355480

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