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    Envenomation is a common medical problem. The Canon of Medicine written by Avicenna is one of the reliable sources of Persian medicine. The present study aims to identify Avicenna's clinical pharmacology approach and the pharmacopeia used for the treatment of animal envenomations and also to evaluate the related data in light of the current medicine. The Canon of Medicine was searched using related Arabic keywords for the contents about the treatment of animal bites. A literature search was conducted in scientific databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science to obtain relevant data. Avicenna recommended one hundred and eleven medicinal plants for the treatment of bites of vertebrate and invertebrate venomous animals including snakes, scorpions, spiders, wasps, and centipedes. He mentioned different methods of administrating these drugs including oral drugs, lotions, sprayed drugs, slow-dissolving tablets in the mouth, and enemas. Moreover, he paid special attention to pain relief in addition to specific treatments for animal bites. In the Canon of Medicine, Avicenna recommended several medicinal plants alongside analgesics for the management and treatment of animal envenomations. The current research elucidates the clinical pharmacology and pharmacopeia of Avicenna for the treatment of animal envenomations. Further research is encouraged to evaluate the efficacy of these therapeutic agents for the treatment of animal bites.© 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


    Ebrahim Nasiri, Jamal Rezaei Orimi, Zahra Aghabeiglooei, Kathleen Walker-Meikle, Mohammad Amrollahi-Sharifabadi. Avicenna's pharmacopeia for the treatment of animal bites. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology. 2023 Jun 27

    PMID: 37368027

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