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With the increasing use and production of "green solvents" ionic liquids (ILs) and their known stability in the environment, the potential adverse effects of ILs have become a focus of research. In the present study, acute, chronic, and intergenerational toxic effects of an imidazolium-based ionic liquid, 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Demim]PF6), on Moina macrocopa were investigated following the parental exposure. The results showed that [Demim]PF6 exhibited high toxicity to M. macrocopa, and the long-term exposure significantly inhibited the survivorship, development, and reproduction of the water flea. Furthermore, it is also observed that [Demim]PF6 induced toxic effects in the following generation of M. macrocopa, resulting in the complete cessation of reproduction in the first offspring generation, and the growth of the organisms was also significantly affected. These findings provided a novel insight into the intergenerational toxicity induced by ILs to crustaceans and suggested that these compounds pose potential risks to the aquatic ecosystem. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


Lu Wang, Xiao Quan Deng, Jin Yu Cai, Wen Wang Liang, Ying Qi Du, Xue Lei Hu. Chronic and intergenerational toxic effects of 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate on the water flea, Moina macrocopa. Ecotoxicology (London, England). 2023 Aug;32(6):699-710

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PMID: 37378816

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