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Obesity is accompanied by atherogenic dyslipidemia, a specific lipid disorder characterized by both quantitative and qualitative changes of plasma lipoproteins. The main alterations in the lipid profile include hypertriglyceridemia, reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, and elevated small dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles. Epidemiological data show that obesity is more common in women and is a frequent risk factor for reproductive disorders, metabolic complications in pregnancy, and cardiometabolic disease later in life. The aim of this narrative review is to discuss recent advances in the research of dyslipidemia in obesity, with an emphasis on female-specific disorders and cardiometabolic risk. The focus of current research on dyslipidemia in obesity is moving toward structurally and functionally modified plasma lipoproteins. Special attention is paid to the pro-atherogenic role of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and their remnants. Introduction of advanced analytical techniques enabled identification of novel lipid biomarkers with potential clinical applications. In particular, proteomic and lipidomic studies have provided significant progress in the comprehensive research of HDL's alterations in obesity. Obesity-related dyslipidemia is a widespread metabolic disturbance in polycystic ovary syndrome patients and high-risk pregnancies, but is seldom evaluated with respect to its impact on future cardiometabolic health. Obesity and associated cardiometabolic diseases require a more depth insight into the quality of lipoprotein particles. Further application of omics-based techniques would enable a more comprehensive evaluation of dyslipidemia in order to reduce an excessive cardiovascular risk attributable to increased body weight. However, more studies on obesity-related female reproductive disorders are needed for this approach to be adopted in daily clinical practice. © 2023. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

Citation

Jelena Vekic, Aleksandra Stefanovic, Aleksandra Zeljkovic. Obesity and Dyslipidemia: A Review of Current Evidence. Current obesity reports. 2023 Sep;12(3):207-222

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PMID: 37410248

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